Essential Nutrients-Cognition:  Research Article

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Malnourrished Children:  Long-Term Effects of Early Malnutrition on Brain Function
This table comes from Janina R. Galler (editor).  Nutrition and Behavior.  1984. Plenum Press New York. 
This book is out of print.
Table lII A. Studies of the Long-Term Effects of Early Malnutrition on Brain Function

Reference Test Results Type of malnutrition Age studied Study design
Stoch and Smythe (1967) EEG Maturational lag. Two markedly abnormal records in index group only. However, index children had poorly foamed low-voltage alpha-waves, lower alpha indices, and an excess of theta waves. Marasmus 
(10-24 Mo)
11-Yr follow-up South Africa
20 Children (II boys and 9 girls) compared with well-nourished controls from more advantaged homes. At 10-24 mo, index children were below 2.5 percentile for weight of Cape colored children, whereas controls were at or above the 10th percentile.
Stoch and Smythe (1976)  EEG EEG abnormalities reported in 7 index children, but also in 8 controls.
15-Yr follow-up 
Stoch et al. (1982) CT Scan 5 Index children had underdevelopment of the temporoparietal region. These children also had impaired visual–motor perception.
20-Yr follow-up
Evans et al. (1971) EEG No differences in alpha index between malnourished children and their siblings. Kwashiorkor (10-48 mo) 12 Yr South Africa
40 Children compared with 40 like-sexed siblings (within 2 yr of age of index children).
Liang et al. (1967) EEG Convulsive susceptibility reported on five tests, and, in 9 children, slowing of brain waves observed. However, there was no correlation between these findings and nutritional status. Mixed PEM
(up to 72 mo)
6-12 Yr Indonesia
31 Children (12 of whom also had vitamin A deficiency) compared with 33 "healthy" controls also reported to be small for their age.
Bartel et al. (1979) EEG (computer analysis) Reduced average frequencies in index children only for both hemispheres and over all EEG leads. Lower alpha activity and more slow-wave activity in index children. Kwashiorkor and marasmic-kwashiorkor up to 27 mo 6-12 Yr South Africa
30 Children compared with 30 siblings, 30 neighborhood children, and 30 higher-class white children.

Bartel, P. R., Griesel, R. D., Freiman, I., Rosen, E. U., and Geethuysen, J., 1979, Long-term effects of kwashiorkor on the electroencephalogram. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32:753-757.

Evans, D. E., Moodie, A. D., and Hansen, J. D. L., 1971, Kwashiorkor and intellectual development, S. Afr. Med. J. 45:1414-1426.

Liang, P. H., Hie, T. T., Jan, O. H., and Giok, L. T., 1967, Evaluation of mental development in relation to early malnutrition, Am. J. Clin. Num. 20(12):1290-1294.

Stoch, M. B., and Smythe, P. M., 1967 The effect of undernutrition during infancy on subsequent growth and intellectual development, S. Afr. Med. ?. 41:1027.

Stoch, M. B., and Smythe, P. M., 1976, 15-Year developmental study on effects of severe undernutrition during infancy on subsequent physical growth and intellectual functioning, Arch. Pis. Child. 51:327-336.

Stoch, M. B., Smythe, T. M., Moodie, A. D., and Bradshaw, D., 1982, Psychosocial outcome and CT findings after growth undernourishment during infancy: A twenty-year developmental study, Dev. Med. Child Neural. 24:419-436.