Essential Nutrients-Cognition:  Research Article

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Developmental Quotients in Malnourished Chilren
This table comes from Janina R. Galler (editor).  Nutrition and Behavior.  1984. Plenum Press New York. 
This book is out of print.
Table IB. Studies of Developmental Quotients in Malnourished Children (Concurrent Effects)
Reference  Test Results Type of malnutrition Age studied Study design
Geber and Dean (1956) Gesell Developmental Schedule Lower scores, though reduction was moderate at time of discharge from hospital. Kwashiorkor (protein-engery malnutrition) 12–38 Mo  Uganda
25 Children studied during hospitalization.
Cravioto and Robels (1965) Gesell Developmental Schedule Lower scores in all areas, but lowest in language. All children improved with medical treatment, except for children admitted at 6 mo of age or younger. Mixed PEM
(protein-engery malnutrition)
3–42 Mo Mexico
20 Children, subdivided by age at admission, were studied every 2 weeks during hospitalization.
Cravioto and DeLicardie (1972) Gesell Developmental Schedule Lower scores in language development prior to and after PEM had occurred. Mixed PEM
(protein-engery malnutrition)
Prospective study of 334 children born during I year in a small village. 22 Children developed severe PEM (I5 had kwashiorkor and 7 had marasmus) and were compared with 22 well-nourished children (matched by age, birth weight, and Gesell scores).
Graves (1976) Gesell Developmental Schedule No differences. Unspecified 7–18 Mo India
23 Children (60–65% weight/age) compared with 30 well-nourished controls (80—95% weight/ age). Neither group hospitalized.
Graves (1978) Gesell Developmental Schedule Lower scores in index children. Mixed PEM
(protein-engery malnutrition)
7–18 Mo Nepal
38 Children (60–75% weighl age) compared with 36 well-nourished controls (80–95% weight/age). Neither group hospitalized.
Pollitt and Granoff (1967) Bayley Scale Lower scores in mental development at all stages of illness and recovery, but motor development improved more rapidly. Marasmus
(protein-engery malnutrition))
11-32 Mo Peru
19 Children assessed during hospitalization were compared with 8 siblings.
Guthrie et at. (1976) Bayley Scale Lower scores in index children, especially on verbal items. These infants clung to their mothers throughout examination. Mixed PEM
(protein-engery malnutrition)
6-36 Mo Philippines
17 Children were compared with 23 children who were not severely malnourished. Neither group hospitalized.
Celedon et al. (1980) Bayley Scale Lower scores especially in younger infants, who were slower to recover. Mixed PEM
(protein-engery malnutrition)
5-18 Mo Chile
24 Children assessed during hospitalization.
Celedon and de Andraca (1979) Bayley Scale
Psychomotor Development Scale (modified for Chile)
Social, language, and fine motor skills improved more  Mixed PEM
(protein-engery malnutrition)

Grantham-McGregor et al. (1978). Grantham-McGregor and Stewart (1980) Griffiths scale Lower scores in index and control children, although a larger deficit was present in index children. Mixed PEM
(protein-engery malnutrition)
6-24 Mo Jamaica
18 Children were compared with 15 well-nourished controls (who had been hospitalized with conditions other than undernutrition). 
Lester (1975) Cardiac habituation Reduction of an adequate response by index children, who required many more trials to habituate, suggesting an attention deficit likely to interfere with learning. Mixed PEM
(protein-engery malnutrition)
12 Mo Guatemala
20 Boys compared with 20 well-nourished boys.
Lester (1976) Crying patterns Abnormal in index children; similar to patterns seen in children with central nervous system dysfunction. Mixed PEM
(protein-engery malnutrition)

12 boys were compared with.12 well-nourished controls (subsample from 1975 study).
Juntunen et al. (1978) Crying patterns Abnormal patterns, especially in the three marasmic infants, including
increased cry frequency and biphonation.
Mixed PEM
(protein-engery malnutrition)
7-24 Mo Nigeria
5 Children were compared with 15 well-nourished controls (mostly from Finland).

Celedon, J `M., and de Andraca, I., 1979, Psychomotor development during treatment of severely marasmic infants, Early Hum. Devi 3:267-275.

Celedon, J. M., Csaszar, D., Middleton, J., and de Andraca, 1., 1980, The effect of treatment on mental and psychomotor development of marasmic infants according to age of admission, J. Ment. Defic. Res. 24:27-35.

Cravioto, J., and DeLicardie, E., 1972, Environmental correlates of severe clinical malnutrition and language development in survivors from kwashiorkor or marasmus, in: Nutrition, the Nervous System and Behavior, pp. 73-94, PAHO Publication No. 251.

Cravioto, J., and Robles, B., 1965, Evolution of adaptive and motor behavior during rehabilitation from kwashiorkor, Am. J. Orthopsychiatry 35:449-464.

Geber, M., and Dean, R. F. A., 1956, The psychological changes accompanying kwashiorkor, Courrier 6:3.

Grantham-McGregor, S. M., and Stewart, M. E., 1980, The relationship between hospitalization, social background, severe protein energy malnutrition and mental development in young Jamaican children, Prof. Food Malnutr. 9:151-156.

Grantham-McGregor, S. M., Stewart, M. E., and Desaix, P., 1978, A new look at the assessment of mental development in young children recovering from severe malnutrition, Dee. Med. Child Neurol. 20:773-778.

Graves, P. L., 1978, Nutrition and infant behavior: A replication study in the Katmandu Valley, Nepal, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31:541-551.

Guthrie, G. M., Masangkay, A., and Guthrie, H. A., 1976, Behavior, malnutrition and mental development, Cross-Cultural Psycho,. 7(2):169-180.

Juntunen, K., Siroio, P., and Michelsson, K., 1978, Cry analysis in infants with severe malnutrition. Eur. J. Pediatr. 128:241-246.

Lester, B. M., 1975, Cardiac habituation of the orienting response to an auditory signal m mtants of varying nutritional status, Dev. Psycho. 11(4):432-442.

Lester, B. M., 1976, Spectrum analysis of the cry sounds of well-nourished and malnourished infants, Child Dev. 47:237-241.

Pollitt, E., and Granoff, D., 1967, Mental and motor development of Peruvian children treated for severe malnutrition. Rev. lnreram. Psicol. 7:93-102.