Essential Nutrients-Cognition: Research Article
|Cromer et al. (1990)||Children, Grade 9||Government breakfast vs. a low calorie breakfast||Government:
doughnut, orange juice, chocolate milk 424 kcal, 11.5 g protein, 63.9 g
carbohydrate, 14.1 g fat Low-calorie meal: 8 oz sugar-free powdered
mix and half cup sugar-free gelatin.
12 kcal, 1.6 g protein, 1 g carbohydrate, 0 g fat
performance task (CPT)
Matching familiar figures
|Duam et al. (1955)||Children, 12 to 14 years||Size and content of breakfast||745 kcal, 24.5 g protein, 28.6 g fat, 97.9 g carbohydrate 744 kcal, 24.8 g protein, 36.8 g fat, 97.9 g carbohydrate 797 kcal, 26.6 g protein, 44.9 g fat, 72.6 g carbohydrate 1215 kcal, 40.9 g protein, 53.6 g fat, 143 g carbohydrate||Choice reaction time||No differences between breakfast content or breakfast size|
|Lieberman et al. (1976)||Children, Grades 3 to 6||School breakfast vs. no breakfast||?||School attendance Reading scores Arithmetic scores||No Differences|
|Lopez et al. (1993)||Children, Grades 4 to 6||Breakfast vs. no breakfast for normal, wasted, and stunted children||394
kcal, 6 g protein
Domino test — problem solving
|Politt et al. (1981)||Children 9 to 11 years||Breakfast vs. no breakfast||Waffles,
syrup, margarine, orange juice, and milk 535 kcal, 15 g protein, 20 g
75 g carbohydrate
Or no breakfast
familiar figures test (MFFT)
Continuous performance task
Hagen central- incidental task (HCI)
|Problem solving better with breakfast Fasting better in short-term memory|
|Smith et al. (1994), Study 2||Adults||Breakfast vs. no breakfast and caffeine vs. no caffeine||Cooked
breakfast: two eggs, two pieces bacon, one slice whole wheat toast, 10
Logical reasoning Semantic processing
words recalled with breakfast
Fewer false alarms with breakfast
More accuracy without breakfast No effect of breakfast
|Tuttle et al. (1949)||Adults,
|Breakfast vs. no breakfast||Heavy
breakfast: 800 kcal, fruit, cereal and cream, egg, one slice bacon, two
slices toast, jam, milk, and coffee Light breakfast: 400 kcal, fruit,
slice toast. butter, milk, coffee
Choice reaction time
|Reaction times greater for no breakfast conditions|
|Tuttle et al. (1950)||Adults.
|Breakfast vs. no breakfast||Breakfast:
749 kcal, two slices white toast, butter, jelly, cereal, whole milk,
|Choice reaction time||No breakfast period slower|
|Smith (1998)||Elderly, 60 to 79 years||Normal breakfast habits||(1)
Breakfast cereal everyday
(2) Breakfast everyday but not always cereal
(3) Irregular breakfast eaters
|National adult reading test||Group 1 scored higher than group 3|
|Tuttle et al. (1952)||Elderly,
|Breakfast vs. no breakfast||Bacon.
egg, milk, toast, and fruit: 750 kcal, 25 g protein, 37 g fat, 80 g
Cereal, milk, toast, fruit: 750 kcal, 25 g protein, 28 g fat. 100 g carbohydrate
|Choice reaction time||No effect of breakfast|
|Tuttle et al. (1953)||Elderly,
|Breakfast vs. no breakfast||Bacon.
egg. milk, toast, and fruit: 744 kcal, 25 g protein, 37 g fat, 78 g
Cereal, milk. toast, and fruit: 750 kcal, 25 g protein. 28 g fat. 100 g carbohydrate
Fruit. cereal, cream. sugar. white bread. butter, whole milk, eggs. and bacon: 998 kcal, 40g protein. 48 g fat. 105 g carbohydrate
|Choice reaction time||Slower reaction times following the heavier breakfast than the two basic breakfasts|
|Politt et al. (1996)||Children, Grades 4 and 5||Breakfast vs. no breakfast for at-risk and no-risk children||80
g Small cake
50 g Almilac (similar to milk) Or no breakfast
discrimination Peabody picture vocabulary test
Raven progressive matrices Reaction time
Stimulus discrimination Sternberg memory search
RT of no-risk
with breakfast RT slower without breakfast for
|Simeon and Grantham-McGregor (1989)||Children, 9 to 10.5 years||Breakfast vs. no breakfast for stunted nonstunted, and previously severely malnourished||Nutribun,
590 kcal, 29 g protein, 12 g fat, 91 g carbohydrate
Or tea sweetened with aspartame
Listening comprehension MFFT
1 and 3 had lower scores in fluency and coding without breakfast Group
2 had higher arithmetic score with no breakfast
Wasted children performed worse on backwards digit span and MFFT without breakfast
Normal kids performed better on MFFT without breakfast
|Vaisman et al. (1996)||Children, 11 to 13 years||School breakfast vs. home breakfast vs. n breakfast; time of breakfast||30 g Sugared corn flakes and 200 ml of 3% fat milk||Rey
auditory verbal learning test
Benton visual retention test
|Children who ate school breakfast performed better on memory and learning tasks than children who did not eat breakfast or ate at home|
and Parker (1998),
|Adults||Breakfast vs. no breakfast; with or without glucose drink||(1)
(2) Normal breakfast with 50 g glucose drink
(3) No breakfast
(4) No breakfast and 50 g glucose drink
4 recalled more than 3
Group 1 recalled more than 3 Breakfast better than none -- drink did not influence
|Benton and Sargent (1992)||Adults||Breakfast vs. no breakfast||Nestle
1370 kJ energy, 18.5 g protein, 37.7 g carbohydrate, 12.2 fat
|Spatial memory Word list||Time
to complete both tasks shorter in the breakfast group
No difference in number of errors for either task
|Smith et al. (1994), Study 1||Adults||Breakfast vs. no breakfast and caffeine vs. no caffeine||Cooked
breakfast: two eggs, two pieces bacon, one slice whole-wheat toast, 10
Cereal/toast breakfast: <25g corn flakes, 150 ml semiskimmed milk, one slice whole-wheat toast, 10 g margarine
Five-choice serial response task
Repeated digits vigilance task
effect of breakfast
Caffeine improved performance
No effect of breakfast
No effect of breakfast
Caffeine improved performance
is not consistently associated with improvements in cognitive
Differences in the quantity and quality of foods consumed at breakfast
may account, in part, for these mixed results.
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