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Toxic Pesticides in Schools

                Table presared by:  Beyond Pesticides
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Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Toxic Pesticides in Schools
A Beyond Pesticides Fact Sheet

Pesticide  Cancer  Reproductive
Neurotoxicity Kidney / Liver
Sensitizer /
  Acephate C1 X2 X3 X4 X2
  Allethrin     X2 X2 X2
  Avermectin   X2 X2    X2
  Bendiocarb    X2 X3   X
  Bromacil C1     X2 X5
  Chlorpyrifos     X2   X2
  Cyfluthrin   X2 X2 X2 X2
  Cypermethrin C1 X6 X2 X2  
  Diazinon   X7 X2   X2
  Dichlorvos C1   X2 X2 X2
  Fenoxycarb Likely1     X2 X2
  Fenvalerate     X2   X2
  Hydramethylnon C1 X8   X2 X2
  Isophenfos     X5    
  Lamda Cyhalothrin  D1   X2   X2
  Permethrin C1 X9 X2 X2 X2
  Phenothrin     X10 X3  
  Piperonyl butoxide C1 X11 X11 X12 X11
  Propetamphos     X2    
  Propoxur B25   X2 X2  
  Pyrethrin Likely1 X2 X2 X2 X2
  Tetramethrin C1   X3    
  Trichlorfon   X2 X2 X2 X2
  Atrazine 2B13 X7 X2 X2 X2
  Bensulide        X2    X2
  2,4-D 2B14 X15 X2 X2 X16
  DSMA     X17   X17
  Dacthal C1     X2 X15
  Dicamba D1   X2 X2 X2
  Diquat Dibromide   X18   X2 X5
  Endothall       X15 X2
  Glyphosate   X15 X15 X2 X5
  Isoxaben C1         
  MCPA   X2 X15 X15  
  MCPP       X2 X2
  MSMA   X9 X9 X18 X9
  Pendimethalin C1 X15   X2 X2
  Prometon D1       X19
  Pronamide B21 X5   X5 X2
  Siduron         X9
  Triclopyr D1     X2 X2
  Trifluralin C1 X7   X2 X2
  Benomyl C1 X8 X15 X2 X2
  Chlorothalonil Likely1   X15   X15
  Maneb B21 X15 X2 X2 X2
  PCNB C1 X15   X15  
  Sulfur         X2
  Triadimefon C1 X8 X2 X2  
  Ziram Likely1 X2 X15 X15 X2
  Cancer Reproductive
Neurotoxicity Kidney / Liver
Sensitizer /
Total 24 25 33 33 39

X = Adverse effects demonstrated. 
B2 = U.S. EPA weight-of-evidence category, “probable human carcinogen, sufficient evidence in
         animals and inadequate or no evidence in humans.” 
C = U.S. EPA weight-of-evidence category, “possible human carcinogen” rating. 
D = U.S. EPA weight-of-evidence category, “not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity,” usually 
       due to inadequate data. 
2B = International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization (IARC) category, 
         the agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans. 
Likely = U.S. EPA, “Likely to be carcinogenic to humans.”

1 U.S. EPA. 2002. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. Office of Pesticide Programs. 
2 Extension Toxicology Network (EXTOXNET) Pesticide Information Profiles, 
3 U.S. EPA. 2000. Table 1: Toxicity Data by Category for Chemicals Listed Under EPCRA Section 313. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program. 
4 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. 
5 U.S. EPA. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Factsheet. Office of Pesticide Program. 
6 Illinois EPA. 1997. Illinois EPA Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. Springfield, IL. 
7 U.S. EPA. 2003. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C: Case Studies, Economic Valuation of Endocrine Disruption: Introduction. Science Policy Council. 
8 California EPA. 2003. Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. 
9 National Library of Medicine, TOXNET, Hazardous Substances Database, 
10 World Health Organization. 1990. d-Phenothrin. Environmental Health Criteria. Geneva. 
11 Cox, C. 2002. “Piperonyl Butoxide.” Journal of Pesticide Reform 22(2): 12-20. 
12 National Pesticide Information Center. Pesticide Fact Sheets. 
13 U.S. EPA. 1999. Table 4: Cancer Data for Chemicals Listed Under EPCRA Section 313. 
14 National Cancer Institute epidemiological evidence. 
15 Environmental Defense Fund, Scoreboard Database, 
16 U.S. EPA. 2003. 2,4-D. Technology Transfer Network, Air Toxics Website. 
17 Material Data Safety Sheet for DSMA, 
18 New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services. Right to Know Hazardous Substance Fact Sheets. 
19 Cornell University. 1985. Prometon Herbicide Profile. Ithaca, NY.

Sources: This list is a compilation analysis by Beyond Pesticides with data collected through surveys on pesticide use and pest management practices from around the country. Surveys include: 

Addiss, S., et al. 1999. Pest Control Practices in CT Public Schools. Environment and Human Health, Inc.

Agricultural Resources Center & Pesticide Education Project. 2003. Clean Schools, Safe Kids. www.PESTed.orgAlabama Cooperative Extension. 2000. 

Alabama School Pest Management Survey 

Becker, B., et al. 1998. Final Report on Pesticide Use in Wisconsin Schools. Publication # AR-263. Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection 

Braband, et al. 2002. Pest Management Practices: A survey of public school districts in New York State. NYS Education Department, the NYS Department of Health, and the NYS Community IPM Program.

Californians for Pesticide Reform. 2002. Learning Curve: Charting Progress of Pesticide Use and the Healthy Schools Act. California Public Interest Research Group Charitable Trust.

Delahaut, K. 2001. Wisconsin's Program for School Pest Management Protects Children.

Fournier, A., et al. 2003. Implementation of Pilot Integrated Pest Management Programs in Indiana Schools and Child Care Facilities. ipmstudy.html

Iowa State University Extension. 2000. Iowa School Pesticide Use Survey.

Lilley, S., et al. 2002. Pest Control Practices in North Carolina Public Schools. SchoolIPM/reports.html. Long, J. 1998. IPM in Schools Final Report. Pennsylvania Integrated Pest Management Program.

Loudon, E. 1999. Weed Wars: Pesticide Use in Washington Schools. Washington Toxics Coalition. Seattle WA.

Maryland Public Interest Research Group. 1998. A Report on Pesticide Use in Maryland Schools.

Massachusetts Public Interest Research Group, 1996. Primary Exposure: Pesticides in Massachusetts Schools.

Miller, Susanne. 2002. Reading, Writing and Raid(R). The Vermont Public Interest Research Group, Inc. environmentalHealth/pesticide_report.pdf

Minnesota Department of Agriculture. 2002. Pest Management Survey of Day Cares, Head Starts, and Preschools. Mitchell, K., ed. 1999. Pesticide Report Card: Texas Schools Score from A to F in the Integrated Pest Management Program. Texas Pesticide Information Network/Consumers Union.

Murray, K., 2000. What's Bugging Our Schools?: Pest Concerns and Pesticide Use in Maine Public Schools. Maine Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Resources. _report.pdf

New York State Environmental Protection Bureau. 2000. Pesticide Use at New York Schools: Reducing the Risk. html

Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides and Oregon Center for Environmental Health. 1998. Pesticide Use by the Portland School District.

Ohio State University. 2001. Ohio Schools Pest Management Survey.

Olle, T. 2000. "P" is for Poison: Update on Pesticide Use in California Schools. CALPIRG Charitable Trust and Californians for Pesticide Reform. healthyschools.pdf

Safer Pest Control Project. 1998. Pesticide Use in Illinois Public Schools: Survey Findings.

Rumph, M., et al. 2000. Report of the Alabama IPM in Schools Working Group "2000 Alabama School IPM Survey." 

Sterling, P., et al. 1999. Chemicals in Classrooms: Pesticides and Maintenance Chemicals in Vermont Schools. Vermont Public Interest Research Group.

Washington Toxics Report Coalition. 2004. A Lesson in Prevention: Measuring Pesticide Use in Washington Schools. Wisconsin Environmental Decade and Citizens for a Better Environment. 1998. Results of Wisconsin Department of Agriculture and Trade Survey on Pesticide Use in Schools.