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Nature and Nurture
   
CITATION:  Miele, Frank. (2005). Nature and Nurture: Putting All the Pieces Together-Miele Replies to Joseph and Schlinger.  Skeptic. Altadena: 2005. Vol. 11, Iss. 3;  pg. 26, 5 pgs.

ABSTRACT:   Miele replies to the comments of Jay Joseph and Henry Schlinger. Among other things, he stresses that Joseph rejects heritability estimates based on two and adoption studies by calling into question a number of assumptions that are part of the standard behavior genetic models.

References

1. Loehlin, J. and Nichols, R. 1976. Heredity, Environment, and Personality: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

2. Scarr, S. and Carter-Saltzman, L. 1979. “Twin Method: Defense of Critical Assumption.” Behavior Genetics. 9: 527-542. Lytton, H. 1977. “Do Parents Create, or Respond to, Differences in Twins?” Developmental Psychology. 13: 456-459. Lytton, H. 2000. “Toward a Model of Family Environmental and Child-Biological Influences on Development.” Developmental Review. 20: 150-179.

Kendler, K.S,Neale, M.C., Heath, A.C,and Eaves, LJ. 1993. “A Test of the Equal-Environment Assumption in Twin Studies of Psychiatric Illness.” Behavior Genetics. 23: 21 -17. Xian, H. Scherrer, J. F., Eisen, S. A. True, W. R. Heath, A. C., Goldberg, J., Lyons, M. J., Tsuang, M. T. 2000. “Self-Reported Zygosity and the Equal-Environment Assumption for Psychiatric Disorders in the Vietnam Era Twin Registry.” Behavior Genetics. 30: 303-310. Borkenau, P, Riemann, R. Angleitner, A., and Spinath, F. M. 2002. “Similarity of childhood experiences and Personality Resemblance in Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins: A Test of the Equal Environment Assumption.” Personality and Individual Differences. 33: 261-169. Bouchard, T. J., and McGue, M. 2003. “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Psychological Differences.” Journal of Neurobiology. 54: 445.

3. Scarr, S. 1968. “Environmental Bias in Twin Studies.” Eugenics Quarterly. 15: 34-40.

4. Derom, R. Bryan, E. Derom, C. Keith, L. and Vlietnick, R. 2001. “Twins, Chorionicity and Zygosity.” Twin Research. 4:134-136.

5. The references are to: Price, B. 1950. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2: 292352; and Price, B. 1978, Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae. 27: 97-113.

6. Segal, N. 1999. Entwined Lives: Twins and What They Tell Us About Human Behavior. New York: Penguin, 319.

7. Bouchard, T. J., McGue, M, Hur, Y. M, and Horn, J.M. 1998. “A Genetic and Environmental Analysis of the California Psychological Inventory Using Adult Twins Reared Apart and Together.” European Journal of Personality. 12: 307-320, 313.

8. Pederson, N L.McClearn, G. E., Plomin, R., and Nesselroade, J. R. 1992. “Effects of Early Rearing Environment on Twin Similarity in the Last Half of the Life Span.” British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 10: 255-267.

9. Bouchard, TJ. and Pedersen, N. 1999. “Twins Reared Apart: Nature’s Double Experiment.” In LaDuda, M. C. and Grigorenko, E. L. (Eds.) On the Way to Individuality: Methodological Issues in Behavioral Genetics, 71-93. Commack, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

10. Bouchard, TJ., Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Segal, N., and Tellegen, A. 1990. “Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science. 250: 4978, 223-228.

11. Segal, N. 1999. Entwined Lives: Twins and What They Tell Us About Human Behavior. New York: Penguin, 319.

12. Segal, N. 2000. “Virtual Twins: New findings on Within-Family Environmental Influence on Intelligence.” Journal of Educational Psychology. 92: 3. pp. 442 - 448.

13. The reference is to: Plomin, R., Corley, R., Caspi, A., Fulker, D. W., & DeFries, J. C. 1998. “Adoption Results for Self-Reported Personality: Evidence for Nonadditive Genetic Effects?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75 (1) 211-218.

14. Plomin R, Corley R, Caspi A, Fulker D.W., DeFries, J. 1998. “Adoption Results for SelfReported Personality: Evidence for Nonadditive Genetic Effects?” Journal or Personality and Social Psychology. 75 (1): 211-218.

15. Plomin, R., Fulker, D. W., Corley, R., DeFries, J. C. 1997. “Nature, Nurture and Cognitive Development From 1 to 16 Years: A ParentOffspring Adoption Study.” Psychological Science 8: 442 - 447.

16. Loehlin, J. and Nichols, R. 1976. Heredity, Environment, and Personality: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

17. Bouchard, T. J. and McGue, M. 2003. “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Psychological Differences.” Journal of Neurobiology. 54: 445.

18. Honzik, M. P. 1957. “Developmental Studies of Parent-Child Resemblance in Intelligence.” Child Development. 28: 215-228.

19. Miele, F., 2002. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics: Conversations with Arthur R. Jensen. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 95.

20. For more information, see my SKEPTIC article “The Shadow of Caliban: An Introduction to the Tempestuous History of Anthropology,” which appears in Sarich, V. and Miele, F. 2004. Race: The Reality of Human Differences. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

21. Degler, C.N. 1992. In Search of Human Nature: The Decline and Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought. Preface. New york NY: Oxford University press.

22. Meehl, P. E. 1978. “Theoretical Risks and Tabular Asterisks: Sir Karl, Sir Ronald, and the Slow Progress of Soft Psychology.” Journal of Consulting Psychology. 46: 806-834, 810.

23. Corsini, R. J. (Ed.). 1984. Encyclopedia of Psychology. New York: Wiley Vol. 2, 353.

24. Koestner, R., Walker, M. and Fichman, L. 1999. “Childhood Parenting Experiences and Adult Creativity.” Journal of Research in Personality. 33: 92-107.

25. Eysenck, H. J. 1990. Rebel With a Cause: The Biography of Hans Eysenck. London, UK: Allen.

26. Wheeler, H. (Ed.) 1973. Beyond The Punitive Society; Operant conditioning: social and political aspects. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.

27. Jensen, A. 2004. Personal communication with F. Miele. 30 December.

28. Sacks, O. 1985. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat and Other Clinical Tales. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

29. Goodall, J. and Berman, P. 2000. Reason for Hope: A SpiritualJourney. New York, NY: Warner Books.

30. Alcock, J. 2001. The Triumph of Sociobiology, New York, NY: Oxford University Press.