CENTER ON BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE

BODY-MIND CONNECTION

PSYCHOLOGICAL - SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

Psychological - Social Environment:  Research Article
Psychological-Social Environment Menu

Media Violence Exposure and Aggressive and Control

CITATION:  Kronenberger, William G., Mathews, V.P., et al.  (2005).  Media Violence Exposure and Executive Functioning in Aggressive and Control Adolescents.  J Clin Psychol 61: 725-737.

ABSTRACT:  The relationship between media violence exposure and executive functioning was investigated in samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Age-, gender-, and IQ-matched samples of adolescents who had no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1 994) diagnosis (N = 27) and of adolescents who had DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses (N= 27) completed measures of media violence exposure and tests of executive functioning. 

Moderate to strong relationships were found between higher amounts of media violence exposure and deficits in self-report, parent-report, and laboratory-based measures of executive functioning. A significant diagnosis by media violence exposure interaction effect was found for Conners' Continuous Performance Test scores, such that the media violence exposure-executive functioning relationship was stronger for adolescents who had Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses. Results indicate that media violence exposure is related to poorer executive functioning, and this relationship may be stronger for adolescents who have a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior.

References

Achenbach, T.M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. 
Psychological Science, 12, 353-359.

Barkley. R.A. (1997). ADHD and the nature of self control. New York: Guilford.

Bedard. A.C., Ickowicz, A.. & Tannock, R. (2002). Methylphenidate improves Stroop naming speed, but not response interference, in children with Attention Deficit 
Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 12, 301–309.

Brown, T.E. (2001). Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scales for Children and Adolescents manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Bushman, B.J. (1995). Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 950–960.

Casey, B.J.. Trainor, R.J., Orendi, J.L., Schubert, A.B., Nystrom, L.E., Giedd, J.N., Castellanos, F.X., Haxby, J.V., Noll, D.C., Cohen, J.D.. Forman, S.D., Dahl, R.E., & 
Rapoport, J.L. (1997). A developmental functional MRI study of prefrontal activation during performance of a go–no-go task. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 835–847.

Conners, C.K. (2000). Conners' CPT II technical guide and software manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.

Conners, C.K., March, J.S., Frances, A., Wells, K.C., & Ross, R. (2001). Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Expert consensus guidelines. Journal of Attention Disorders, 4 (Supplement 1), S7–S13.

Davidson, R.J., Putnam, K.M., & Larson, C.L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation—a possible prelude to violence. Science, 289, 591–594.

Doyle, A.E., Biederman, J., Seidman, L.J., Weber, W., & Faraone, S.V. (2000). Diagnostic efficacy of neuropsychological test scores for discriminating boys with and without attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 68, 477–488.

Dunn, D.W.. Austin, J.K., Harezlak, J., & Ambrosius, W.T. (2003). ADHD and epilepsy in child-hood. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 45, 50–54.

Filley. C.M., Price, B.H., Nell, V., Antoinette, T.. Morgan, AS., Bresnahan, J.E. Pincus, J.H., Gelbort, M.M., Weissberg, M., & Kelly, J.P. (2001). Toward an understanding of violence: Neurobehavioral aspects of unwarranted physical aggression: Aspen Neurobehavioral Conference Consensus Statement. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 14, 1-14.

Gadow, K.U., & Sprafkin, J. (1998). Adolescent Symptom Inventory ~f Norms manual. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus.

Gioia, G.A., Isquith, P.K., Guy, S.C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Golden, C.J. (1978). Stroop Color and Word Test. Wood Dale, IL: Stoelting.

Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., & Ryan, N. (1996). Kiddie-SADS—Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Pittsburgh: Western Psychiatric Institute.

Kronenberger, W.G., Mathews, V.P., Dunn, D.W., Wang, Y., Wood, E.A., Larsen, J.J., Rembusch, M.E., Lowe, M.J., Giauque, A.L., & Lurito, J.T. (in press). Media violence exposure in aggressive and control adolescents: Differences in self- and parent-reported exposure to violence on television and in video games. Aggressive Behavior.

Lachar, D., & Gruber, C.P. (1995). Personality Inventory for Youth manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychiatric Services.

Lezak, M.D. (1983). Neuropsychological assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford.

Michaelson, D., Allen, A.J., Busner, J., Casat, C., Dunn, D., Kratochvil, C., Newcorn, 
J., Sallee, R., Sangal, R.B., Saylor, K., West, S., Kelsey, D., Wernicke, J., Trapp, N.J., & Harder, D. (2002). Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1896–1901.

Murray, J.P. (2002). TV violence and brainmapping in children. Psychiatric Times, 18, 1–8.

Perret, E. (1974). The left frontal lobe of man and the suppression of habitual responses in verbal categorical behavior. Neuropsychologia, 12, 323–330.

Psychological Corporation. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Ruchkin, V., Koposov. R., Vermeiren, R., & Schwab-Stone, M. (2003). Psychopathology and age at onset of conduct problems in juvenile delinquents. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 913-920.

Shanee, N., Apter, A., & Weizman. A. (1997). Psychometric properties of the K-SADS-PL in an Israeli adolescent clinical population. Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences, 34, 179-186.

Spreen, O., & Strauss. E. (1998). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford.

Villani, S. (2001). Impact of media on children and adolescents: A 10-year review of the research. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 392-401.

Wang, Y., Mathews, V.P., Lurito, J.T., Lowe, M.J., Dzemidzic, M.. Phillips, M.D., Kronenberger, W., & Dunn, D. (2002). Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorder have different frontal lobe fMRI activation patterns as compared to control subjects. Proceedings of the Inter-national Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 10th Scientific Meeting (p. 128).